It houses approximately 4, objects, including European porcelain, ceramics from the Ancient Americas, Chinese porcelain, Japanese porcelain, and contemporary ceramics. Search the collection online! Everyone can love clay! Steamy kitchens, ceramics delights, royal foodies This is the 18th century like you've never seen it!
Commemorating the murdered and missing Indigenous women, girls, queer, and trans community members. Check our hours, admission rates, and special notices before planning your visit. Plan your visit. Join the Gardiner community to receive special offers and invitations to exclusive events. Learn more. Find unique hand-crafted ceramics, jewellery, and textiles by top Canadian designers. Browse the shop. It is one of a small number of specialized museums of ceramics in the world.
Ceramic is the term we use to describe any object, whether created for practical, ritual, or ornamental use, that is made of clay and fired.
There are many different types of ceramic; each defined by its material and sometimes by the way it is decorated or fired. The Gardiner Museum was established in by George and Helen Gardiner, whose founding collection set the pattern for the future. If you're looking to identify a piece of marked pottery, you may want to check our American Pottery Marks and Resource Directory and compare the mark there.
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If you pick up a piece of pottery and it has identifying marks such as a name or logo, you can easily determine the maker. This is wonderful, but not always available. See the Frankoma pitcher, right. Since not all pottery is marked, the identification must be done with a little more resourcefulness. The best identifier I have found for determining if an unmarked piece of pottery is American made is the heft of the piece.
Most American pottery pieces have some weight to them—unlike the Japan imports of the s, s and s that seem fairly light in comparison. So, just in the process of picking up the piece, the weight is registering in my mind. This is something that has to be developed over time. It is not that any piece over a certain weight is American pottery—it is the relationship between the size and the weight that helps determine the country of origin.
The American pieces feel like they have "heavy bottoms" and often the walls are thicker than Japan and other foreign potteries. The clay color is the first thing I see on the bottom of any piece of pottery, and certain colors can identify the maker. It is essential to look for an unglazed area to determine the clay color.
For example, you probably know that Frankoma was made with a red clay for many years. Look at the feet on the Frankoma leaf left. Ada clay was a yellow beige and was earlier than the red clay pieces.
Note the bottom on the Frankoma piece right. Blue Mountain pottery of Canada is usually made of red clay, is often unmarked and looks and feels much like American pottery.
Early Peters and Reed pottery was red clay, too, as were many of the Arts and Crafts pots like Grueby. Some Italian and Mexican pottery is made with red clay, and much of the southwest or Native American pottery uses shades of red. Harris G. Strong used red clay sometimes, too, and Nicodemus is a red clay pottery. Jugtown is often red clay, and there are some North Carolina potters who used red clay.
See this red clay dish by Harris G. Strong left. Georgia, Alabama, and North and South Carolina have available veins of red clay that are suitable for pottery, so consider makers in those geographical areas if you have a red clay pot to identify. Of course there are lots more, but if you have a piece of pottery with a red clay base, this is a start.
There are many different shades of "red" clay, but red and deep pink clays have been readily available to the potter for centuries, and this color often gives the glaze a different look than it would have with another color clay. Yellow clay was primarily from Ohio, so most of the Ohio potteries used yellow clay.
Roseville , McCoy and Brush are examples of the yellow clay potters.
For an example, see the yellow clay bowl produced by McCoy right. Robinson-Ransbottom was mostly yellow clay. Watt Pottery is in a class I call yellowware, since they used a clear glaze over the yellow clay instead of colors.
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Robinson-Ransbottom, Blue Ridge , Purinton , Watt all made some yellowware with a clear glaze over the yellow clay. Take a look at the Watt Pottery yellowware bowl left. Weller sometimes used yellow to cream colored clay, but just when you think you have learned how to identify these pots by clay color, an anomaly shows up.
Look at this Weller piece in red clay! Hull and Shawnee are a cream color with a pink tint to the clay. So are American Bisque and Royal Copley.
Don't confuse this with pink clay—used by Coventry and Kay Finch and a few other California potters, including some Hagen-Renaker. See how the pink clay Dutch boy left has a pink clay color so his face, base and backpack don't require additional paint? Camark and some Arkansas potteries as well as Texas potters used a white to ecru clay, primarily.
See the dry foot on the Camark console bowl right.
Niloak is often white clay, and much of the Niloak was heavier with a wider foot left or base than many other American potteries of that era. Alamo and Gilmer are Texas potteries using white clay. See the white clay base right. A quick aside about Alamo and Gilmer: Alamo and Gilmer potteries were related companies and used many of the same designs — some originally from famous Texas potter Harding Black. Stangl Pottery is often made of a white clay, too. Some Hawaii pieces are also white clay, like this Hawaiian pitcher on the left.
Beige clay was used by Rosemeade and some eras of Dryden , primarily Kansas Dryden. This green Dryden pitcher right shows the beige clay clearly. Monmouth which later became Western Stoneware used a sandy clay, often seen with a maple leaf and USA incised into the clay. If you examine a pot like the sandy jug left , you can quickly recognize the clay and maple leaf.
Some of the southwest Native American pottery is beige clay, too. This pitcher right is marked Acoma on the side. A wide variety of animal and plant by-products e. Using an integrative approach, we show the importance of beehive products, millet and bacteriohopanoid beverage s in Early Celtic drinking practices.
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